"Treat the Gear - Protect The Athlete™"

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987 Jan;31(1):93-9.

Silver-coated nylon fiber as an antibacterial agent

MacKeen PC, Person S, Warner SC, Snipes W, Stevens SE Jr. The Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802

Abstract: A blend of nylon fiber and silver-coated nylon fiber (the latter known as X-static) was used in these experiments. This fiber was bactericidal when bacteria were exposed to it directly or to an extract derived from its prior incubation in salt solution. At ambient temperatures, a rapid exponential decrease of survival occurred, usually after a delay of approximately 1 h. The rate of killing (decrease of survival) increased with an increase in X-static percentage of the fiber blend, temperature of fiber extraction, concentration of Tris buffer present during extraction, and temperature at which bacteria were exposed to the extract. When bacteria were exposed to the extract at 37 degrees C as opposed to ambient temperature, there was no delay in onset of killing. Escherichia coli was generally the indicator organism tested, but comparable results were also found for Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus species. The rate of killing increased with increasing silver ion concentration of the fiber extract, as determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The rate of killing was greater and the onset was earlier with an extract containing silver ions from fiber than with a salt solution containing the same concentration of silver ions from silver nitrate. Studies of the kinetics of ion release suggested that X-static may be an effective, sustained-release antibacterial agent.

International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2011, 33, 298–311

Body malodours and their topical treatment agents

M. Kanlayavattanakul and N. Lourith School of Cosmetic Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand

Abstract: Body malodour, including foot odour, suppresses social interaction by diminishing self-confidence and accelerating damage to the wearer’s clothes and shoes. Most treatment agents, including aluminium anti-perspirant salts, inhibit the growth of malodourous bacteria. These metallic salts also reduce sweat by blocking the excretory ducts of sweat glands, minimizing the water source that supports bacterial growth. However, there are some drawback effects that limit the use of aluminium anti-perspirant salts. In addition, over-the-counter anti-perspirant and deodourant products may not be sufficiently effective for heavy sweaters, and strong malodour producers. Body odour treatment agents are rarely mentioned in the literature compared with other cosmetic ingredients. This review briefly summarizes the relationship among sweat, skin bacteria, and body odour; describes how odourous acids, thiols, and steroids are formed; and discusses the active ingredients, including metallic salts and herbs, that are used to treat body odour. A new class of ingredients that function by regulating the release of malodourants will also be described. These ingredients do not alter the balance of the skin flora. A good anti-bacterial deodourant should work specifically against axillary bacteria within an effective time period as well as exhibit good stability and compatibility with other ingredients in the formulation. Furthermore, such formulations should be non-toxic and non-irritating and safe. Thus, anti-microbial metal ions known as anti-microbial ceramics (ACs) have become increasingly important in people’s day-to-day lives because of their wide range of applications in personal and home care products (i.e. fabrics and cosmetics)

Hipler U-C, Elsner P (eds): Biofunctional Textiles and the Skin. Curr Probl Dermatol. Basel, Karger, 2006, vol 33, pp 179–199

Antimicrobial-Finished Textile Three-Dimensional Structures

M. Heidea, U. Möhringa, R. Hänselb, M. Stoll b, U. Wollinac, B. Heinigc aTextilforschungsinstitut Thüringen-Vogtland eV, Greiz, bForschungsinstitut für Leder und Kunststoffbahnen gGmbH, Freiberg, und cHautklinik am Klinikum Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Deutschland

Abstract: This paper describes the possibilities of antimicrobial finishing of three-dimensional spacer fabrics and its applications, and gives information about the different effects. A research project of the Textilforschungsinstitut Thüringen-Vogtland Greiz is presented in which medical shoe insoles, based on specially manufactured three-dimensional spacer fabrics, made of permanently effective antimicrobial yarns were used for interesting and functional textile products. Furthermore, work of the research institute Forschungsinstitut für Leder und Kunststoffbahnen Freiberg is presented which describes the silver-coating process and application of textile materials using antimicrobial substances. The chemical and mechanical stability is investigated, and proof of the effectiveness is supplied. The results show that in the three-dimensional spacer fabrics both – antimicrobial yarn materials and thin silver films with antimicrobial substances – can achieve an antimicrobial effect, even in low quantities.

J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2008), 18(8), 1482–1484

Antifungal Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Dermatophytes

Kim, Keuk-Jun1, Woo Sang Sung1, Seok-Ki Moon2, Jong-Soo Choi2, Jong Guk Kim1 and Dong Gun Lee1*

1 Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea 2 Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717, Korea

Abstract: Spherical silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) were synthesized and their antifungal effects on fungal pathogens of the skin were investigated. Nano-Ag showed potent activity against clinical isolates and ATCC strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida species (IC80, 1-7 μg/ml). The activity of nano-Ag was comparable to that of amphotericin B, but superior to that of fluconazole (amphotericin B IC80, 1-5 μg/ml; fluconazole IC80, 10-30 μg/ml). Additionally, we investigated their effects on the dimorphism of Candida albicans. The results showed nano-Ag exerted activity on the mycelia. Thus, the present study indicates nano-Ag may have considerable antifungal activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications.

J Wound Care 2002 Apr 11:125-30

Silver. I: Its antibacterial properties and mechanism of action.

Abstract: Silver products have two key advantages: they are broad-spectrum antibiotics and are not yet associated with drug resistance. This article, the first in a two-part series, describes the main mechanism of action of this metallic element.

Hipler U-C, Elsner P (eds): Biofunctional Textiles and the Skin. Curr Probl Dermatol. Basel, Karger, 2006, vol 33, pp 152–164

Silver-Coated Textiles in the Therapy of Atopic Eczema

Anke Gauger Klinik und Poliklinik für Dermatologie und Allergologie am Biederstein, Technische Universität München, München, Deutschland

Abstract: Atopic skin is mainly determined by a disrupted skin barrier, resulting in a higher susceptibility to external irritants in affected and nonaffected skin. Apart from many other irritant and allergic influences, skin colonization with Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major factors triggering and maintaining atopic eczema (AE). Adequate textile protection with low irritant potential can be helpful in reducing the exposure to exogenous trigger factors. Until now, cotton fabrics have been the state of the art of recommended textiles for patients with AE. The combination of antimicrobial therapy with compatible textiles in terms of biofunctionality is a promising innovative approach. The antibacterial effect of silver-coated textiles on S. aureus colonization has been demonstrated in an open side-to-side comparison. Silver-coated textiles were able to reduce S. aureus density significantly after 2 days of wearing, lasting until the end of treatment (day 7) and even 1 week after removal of the textiles. In addition, there was a significant difference in S. aureus density comparing silver-coated with cotton textiles. In addition, the clinical efficacy and functionality of silver-coated textiles in generalized AE have been examined in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. They were able to improve objective and subjective symptoms of AE significantly within 2 weeks, showing a good wearing comfort and functionality comparable to cotton without measurable side effects. These therapeutic effects led to a significantly lower impairment of quality of life, already after 2 weeks. Therefore, beside a potent antibacterial activity in vivo, silver-coated textiles demonstrate a high efficacy in reducing the clinical severity of AE showing a wearing comfort comparable to cotton.

Biotechnology Advances 27 (2009) 76–83

Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials

Mahendra Rai , Alka Yadav, Aniket Gade Department of Biotechnology, SGB Amravati University, Amravati-444-602, Maharashtra, India

Abstract: Silver has been in use since time immemorial in the form of metallic silver, silver nitrate, silver sulfadiazine for the treatment of burns, wounds and several bacterial infections. But due to the emergence of several antibiotics the use of these silver compounds has been declined remarkably. Nanotechnology is gaining tremendous impetus in the present century due to its capability of modulating metals into their nanosize, which drastically changes the chemical, physical and optical properties of metals. Metallic silver in the form of silver nanoparticles has made a remarkable comeback as a potential antimicrobial agent. The use of silver nanoparticles is also important, as several pathogenic bacteria have developed resistance against various antibiotics. Hence, silver nanoparticles have emerged up with diverse medical applications ranging from silver based dressings, silver coated medicinal devices, such as nanogels, nanolotions, etc.

Can. J. Microbiol. 56: 247–253 (2010)

The effect of silver nanoparticles on phytopathogenic spores of Fusarium culmorum

M.J. Kasprowicz1 and M. Kozioł. Department of Physics, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Mickiewicza 21, Krakow 31-120, Poland. A. Gorczyca. Department of Agricultural Environmental Protection, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Mickiewicza 21, Krakow 31- 120, Poland.

Abstract: The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the influence of silver nanoparticles on Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith) Sacc. (FC) spores. The silver nanoparticles were produced by the high-voltage arc discharge method. To test the effect of silver nanoparticles on FC spores, 3 parameters were tested. One of these parameters was the vegetative mycelial growth in 2 experiments. The first involved the growth of FC spores on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium after contact with 0.12–10 ppm of silver nanoparticles, and the second the growth of spores after contact with 0.12–2.5 ppm solutions of silver, but with culturing on 3 types of media (PDA, nutrient-poor PDA, and agar) instead. The next parameter was the formation of spores after the mycelia were cultured. The last parameter was spore germination in a 2.5 ppm solution of silver nanoparticles. A significant reduction in mycelial growth was observed for spores incubated with silver nanoparticles. This relationship was dependent on the incubation time and type of growth medium, but did not depend significantly on the concentration of silver nanoparticles up to 2.5 ppm. The sporulation test showed that, relative to control samples, the number of spores formed by mycelia increased in the culture after contact with silver nanoparticles, especially on the nutrient-poor PDA medium. The 24 h incubation of FC spores with a 2.5 ppm solution of silver nanoparticles greatly reduced the number of germinating fragments and sprout length relative to the control.

Hipler U-C, Elsner P (eds): Biofunctional Textiles and the Skin. Curr Probl Dermatol. Basel, Karger, 2006, vol 33, pp 35–41

Antimicrobials and the Skin Physiological and Pathological Flora

Peter Elsner Department of Dermatology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany

Abstract: Healthy human skin is regularly colonized by nonpathogenic microorganisms. Bacterial genera isolated are coagulase-negative staphylococci and diphtheroid rods on the skin surface and propionibacteria in the infundibulum of the sebaceous glands. As for fungi, Pityrosporum (Malassezia spp.) is regularly present. The distribution and density of the flora is dependent on age and environmental factors such as sebum secretion, occlusion, temperature and humidity. Odor production in the axilla is related to the activity of aerobic diphtheroids. Antimicrobials may reduce the density of the skin resident flora, but they do not completely eliminate it. While antimicrobials may cause irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, no evidence exists that the use of antimicrobial substances may change the ecology of resident bacteria on the skin thereby leading to the overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria.

Langmuir. 2012 Nov 13;28(45):15929-36. doi: 10.1021/la303370d. Epub 2012 Oct 29.

Quantifying the origin of released Ag+ ions from nanosilver.

Sotiriou GA, Meyer A, Knijnenburg JT, Panke S, Pratsinis SE. Particle Technology Laboratory, Institute of Process Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. 

Abstract: Nanosilver is most attractive for its bactericidal properties in modern textiles, food packaging, and biomedical applications. Concerns, however, about released Ag(+) ions during dispersion of nanosilver in liquids have limited its broad use. Here, nanosilver supported on nanostructured silica is made with closely controlled Ag size both by dry (flame aerosol) and by wet chemistry (impregnation) processes without any surface functionalization that could interfere with its ion release. It is characterized by electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, and its Ag(+) ion release in deionized water is monitored electrochemically. The dispersion method of nanosilver in solutions affects its dissolution rate but not the final Ag(+) ion concentration. By systematically comparing nanosilver size distributions to their equilibrium Ag(+) ion concentrations, it is revealed that the latter correspond precisely to dissolution of one to two surface silver oxide monolayers, depending on particle diameter. When, however, the nanosilver is selectively conditioned by either washing or H(2) reduction, the oxide layers are removed, drastically minimizing Ag(+) ion leaching and its antibacterial activity against E. coli . That way the bactericidal activity of nanosilver is confined to contact with its surface rather than to rampant ions. This leads to silver nanoparticles with antibacterial properties that are essential for medical tools and hospital applications.

Part Fibre Toxicol. 2010 Apr 1;7:8. doi: 10.1186/1743-8977-7-8.

Determination of silver nanoparticle release from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat.

Kulthong K, Srisung S, Boonpavanitchakul K, Kangwansupamonkon W, Maniratanachote R. National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 111 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Road, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand.

Abstract: Silver nanoparticles have been used in numerous commercial products, including textiles, to prevent bacterial growth. Meanwhile, there is increasing concern that exposure to these nanoparticles may cause potential adverse effects on humans as well as the environment. This study determined the quantity of silver released from commercially claimed nanosilver and laboratory-prepared silver coated fabrics into various formulations of artificial sweat, each made according to AATCC, ISO and EN standards. For each fabric sample, the initial amount of silver and the antibacterial properties against the model Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria on each fabric was investigated. The results showed that silver was not detected in some commercial fabrics. Furthermore, antibacterial properties of the fabrics varied, ranging from 0% to greater than 99%. After incubation of the fabrics in artificial sweat, silver was released from the different fabrics to varying extents, ranging from 0 mg/kg to about 322 mg/kg of fabric weight. The quantity of silver released from the different fabrics was likely to be dependent on the amount of silver coating, the fabric quality and the artificial sweat formulations including its pH. This study is the unprecedented report on the release of silver nanoparticles from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat. This information might be useful to evaluate the potential human risk associated with the use of textiles containing silver nanoparticles.